Alice C. Linsley
I've been corresponding with a descendant of the Annu (Ainu) people who migrated thousands of years ago to Newfoundland and Labrador and to the eastern coast of Canada. My correspondant's native name is Sea’Key (the ’ is a little click made with the tongue.) His name means White Salmon with a Heart of Gold. He has been very generous with his time, sharing many accounts of his people's history.
He writes, "We are called MicMac now but early we were called the Beothique by the French and Beothuck by the English. Our people are said to be extinct, but we just left when the shooting started. A few 100 French did not wipe out 10,000’s of natives. It is said we migrated in 2 waves to Nova Scotia and Labrador."
MicMac means friend. The early name of the territory of Sea'Key's people was Khan O Dan, or Can a dan, which became "Canadian" to the French. Sea'Kay reports that according to the oral tradition of his people, they came in two waves from the Middle East to Scandanavia, then to Greenland and to the Hudson Bay area of Eastern Canada.
His people are in mtDNA haplogroup X. The dispersion of haplogroup X is shown below. The greatest concentrations are indicated by the darker shade. MtDNA traces lineage by the mitochondria, received from the mothers.
The heaviest concentration of mtDNA haplogroup X is in Eastern Canada which is where Sea’Kay lives. The estimate is upwards of 55% in some tribes and averages at around 25%. The next highest concentration, about 40%, is found in the Druze population.
Only 7% of the Dene (Navajo) are in haplogroup X. Their language has been connected to Ket, a Yeniseic language spoken by a very small Siberian population. However, haplogroup X is virtually non-existent in Siberia, the land route to North America proposed by some anthropologists.
The genetic sequences of haplogroup X diverged from haplogroup N which originated in the region of the Lower Nile. Haplogroup X diverged further about 30,000 years ago with two sub-groups X1 and X2 now identified. Overall haplogroup X accounts for about 2% of the population of Europe, the Near East, and North Africa.
Sub-group X1 is restricted to North and East Africa, and also the Near East. Sub-group X2 appears to have undergone population expansion and dispersal after the last glacial maximum, between 21,000 and 18,000 years ago. Sub-group X1 is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe. There are concentrations of sub-group X2 in Georgia (8%), the Orkney Islands (7%) and amongst the Israeli Druze (27%), most of whom live in Galilee.
According to the Greenland Saga, Sea'Kay's ancestors used bows and arrows. These weapons characterized the Ainu of the Nile whose land was called Ta-Seti which means "land of the bow." The name of the biblical ruler Seth is related.
The Ainu migrations are not shown on the Bradshaw Foundation maps of migration out of East Africa. However, the Ainu are at the center of Cavalli-Szforza's Genetic Distance Chart, which is what would be expected of "First People." Ainu is also spelled Annu and Hannu.
Nyland (2001) found that many names of places and common objects in Hebrew are closely related to the Saharan proto-languages, the languages spoken by Abraham's Kushite ancestors.
If the mating structure of the Ainu rulers is the same as the structure of the Horites - which it appears to be, as Terah, Abraham's father, is associated with the Nilotic Annu and he was a Horite - then the expansion and dispersion of Haplogroup X can be explained in part by their marriage and ascendency pattern whereby younger sons were sent away to establish territories for themselves.
The Kushites were great explorers and kingdom builders. Their migration out of the Nile region has been confirmed through DNA and migration studies. Though we first meet Abraham in Mesopotamia (Gen. 12), he is a descendant of Nimrod, the son of Kush (Gen. 10:8), who built a kingdom the length of the Euphrates.
Among the Kushites there was a caste of ruler-priests known as Horites. They are called "Horites" because they were devotees of Hor (Horus in Greek). The oldest temples dedicated to Horus have been located in modern-day Sudan at Nekhen. From here the Horites spread their religion across the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion. This Dominion extended from present-day Benin to India, China and Cambodia. There is little doubt that ancient Nilotic peoples, including the Annu, were masterful seamen and traveled widely. It is also evident that they didn't all migrate the same direction or at the same time.
The Horites named in Genesis 36 called their land Edom, which means red. David, one of their descendants, is said to have had a red skin tone. The red skin tone was enhanced by exposure to the sun. The red tone represented the ruler as the servant of Ra, whose emblem was the sun. The queen made herself white to represent the moon.
Predynastic Egyptians varied in appearance. Eye colors included blue, gray, green and brown, and some men wore full beards while others were beardless. The typical Egyptian had a reddish skin tone. Nubians ranged from light brown to black. Many had a dark reddish-brown skin tone.
|Ancient Egyptians reflect a greater genetic diversity than is found outside the Nile Valley.|
As Sea'Key recently called to my attention, there is a close correlation between the Hebrew alphabet and the Japanese alphabet. Likely this is because both are based on the older writing system of the Ainu.
The Ainu were the first settlers of Japan. They were said to appear more Caucasian than Asian.
On the right is an image of an Ainu elder from Hokkaido Japan. Compare to the photo (left) of one of Sea'Kay's ancestors. Note the similar robe designs and headdresses. Note also the reddish skin tone of the Ainu elder.
Related reading: The Nilotic Origins of the Ainu; The Nile-Japan Ainu Connection; Abraham's Annu Ancestors; What Color Was Abraham?; Ancient Egyptians Were Seafaring; Distribution of Y-Chromosome Among North American Natives; Afro-Asiatics in North America Before Columbus; A Scientific Timeline of Genesis